The writer is Warwick Hughes, a free lance earth scientist who has published several papers on climate science through the 1990's. See list below.
Dr Vincent Gray has written bio notes about me at;
If you have questions, comments, suggestions etc I can be contacted at sanur2007 at sign warwickhughes.com
The site has always been self funded and I am of course open to ideas for improvements.
Refereed Published Papers:
1992 Robert C. Balling, Jr., Sherwood B. Idso, and Warwick S. Hughes. "Long-Term and Recent Anomalous Temperature Changes in Australia." Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 19, No. 23, pp. 2317-2320.
1995 Robert C. Balling, Jr. and Warwick S. Hughes. "Comments on "Detecting Climate Change Concurrent with Deforestation in the Amazon Basin: Which Way Has It Gone ?" Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 76, No. 4, 9. 559.
Hughes. Comment on D.E. Parker, "Effects of Changing
of Thermometers at Land Stations." International Journal of
Vol. 15, pp. 231-234.
Four page paper scanned here
1996 Warwick S. Hughes and Robert C. Balling, Jr. "Urban Influences on South African Temperature Trends." International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 16, No. 8, pp. 935-940. Online at http://www.john-daly.com/s-africa.htm
Warwick S. Hughes. Comment on, "Historical Thermometer
Australia." by N. Nichols et al. International
of Climatology, Vol. 17, pp. 197-199.
References Quoted on these pages.
Balling, RC, Idso SB (1989) Historical temperature trends in the United States and the effect of urban population growth. Journal of Geophysical Research 94:3359-3363
Balling RC, Vose RS, Weber GR (1998) Analysis of long-term European temperature records: 1751-1995. Climate Research 10: 193-200
Bate, R. (1998), Editor, "Global Warming The Continuing Debate", European Science and Environment Forum.
Christy JR, Goodridge JD (1995) Precision global temperatures from satellites and urban warming effects of non-satellite data. Atmospheric Environment 16: 1957-1961
Chow Shu Djen (1992). The urban climate of Shanghai Atmospheric Environment 26B(1):9-15.
Daly J.(2000a) What the stations say. http://www.microtech.com.au/daly/stations/stations.htm
Duchon CE (1986) Temperature Trends at San Juan. Puerto Rico. Bull. Amer. Metor. Soc. 67:1370-1377
Easterling DR, Horton B, Jones PD, Peterson TC, Karl TR, Parker DE, Salinger MJ, Razuvayev V, Plummer N, Jamason P, Folland CK (1997) Maximum and minimum temperature trends for the globe. Science 277:364-367.
Emsley, J, (1996) Editor, " The Global Warming Debate",
European Science and Environment Forum.
Folland, Parker and Kates, 1984 Worldwide marine temperature
fluctuations 1856-1981, Letter to Nature, Vol 310, 23 Aug 1984, page
P. Frich et al 1996. North Atlantic climatological dataset (NACD version 1) Final report. Danish Meteorological Institute, Scientific Report 96-1, 47 pp + app. Available on www.dmi.dk web site.
Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), (2000) Surface Temperature: Station Data. http://www.giss.nasa.gov/data/update/gistemp/station_data
Goodridge JD (1992) Urban bias influences on long-term California air temperature trends . Atmospheric Environment 26B (1): 1-7.
Grove, Jean. 1988 "The Little Ice Age". Methuen.
Goodridge, JD (1996) Comments on "Regional Simulations of Greenhouse Warming including Natural Variability" . Bull, Amer. Meteorological Society 77:1588-1599
Hansen, JR, Lebedeff S, (1987) Global trends of measured surface temperature. J. Geophysical Research 92:13,345-13,372
Hansen, J, R Ruedy , M Sato, R. Reynolds (1996) Global surface air temperature in 1995: Return to pre=Pinatubo level Geophys Research Letters 23, 1665-1668
Hansen J, Ruedy R, Glasoe, J, Sato, MKI, (1999) GISS analysis of surface temperature change J. Geophys. Res. 104: 30997-31022.
Hansen JR (2000). http://www.giss.nasa.gov/data/update/gistemp
Hessell, JWD (1980) Apparent trends of mean temperature in New Zealand since 1930. New Zealand J. Science 23: 1-9.
Houghton JT, Jenkins JG, Ephraums JJ (1990) Climate change, the IPCC scientific assessment. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge
Houghton JT., Meira Filho LG, Callander BA, Harris N, A. Kattenberg A, Maskell K , (1996), Climate Change 1995 : The science of climate change, Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.
Howard, Luke (1818) The Climate of London. Discovery of the UHI
Hughes WS, Balling RC (1996) Urban influences on South African temperature trends. Int J Climatology 16:935-940 (also available at http://www.john-daly.com/s-africa.htm )
Jones PD , Raper SCB, Cherry BSG, Goodess CM, Wigley TML, Santer B, Kelly PM, Bradley RS, Diaz HF, . (1985) TR022 A Grid Point Surface Air Temperature Data Set for the Northern Hemisphere. Office of Energy Research ,Carbon Dioxide Research Division, US Department of Energy. Under Contract No. DE-ACO2-79EV10098
Jones PD , Raper SCB, Bradley RS, Diaz HF, Kelly PM, Wigley TML. (1986) Northern Hemisphere surface air temperature variations 1851-1984. J. Clim Appl Met. 25:161-179
Jones, P.D., Raper, S.C.B. and Wigley, T.M.L., (1986b), Southern Hemisphere Surface Air Temperature Variations 1851-1984. Journal of Clim Applied Meteorology, 25, p. 1213-1230.
Jones PD , Raper SCB, Cherry BSG, Goodess CM, Wigley TML, (1986c) TR027 A Grid Point Surface Air Temperature Data Set for the Southern Hemisphere. Office of Energy Research ,Carbon Dioxide Research Division, US Department of Energy. Under Contract No. DE-ACO2-79EV10098
Jones PD, Kelly PM, Goodess GB, Karl TR (1989) The effect of urban warming on the Northern Hemisphere temperature average. J Clim 2: 285-290
Jones PD, Groisman PYa, Coughlan M, Plummer N, Wangl WC, Karl TR (1990) Assessment of urbanization effects in time series of surface air temperatures over land. Nature 347:169-172
Jones PD , Raper SCB, Cherry BSG, Goodess CM, Wigley TML, Santer B, Kelly PM, Bradley RS, Diaz HF, . (1991) An Updated Global Grid Point Surface Air Temperature Anomaly Data Set: 1851-1990. Carbon Dioxide Research Program, Environmental Sciences Division, US Department of Energy.
Jones PD, (1994) Hemispheric surface air temperature variations: a reanalysis and an update to 1993. J Clim 7:1794-1802
Jones PD, Osborn TJ, Wigley TML, Kelly PM, Santer BD, (1997) Comparisons between the microwave sounding unit temperature record and the surface temperature record from 1979 to 1996: Real differences or potential discontinuities? J. Geophys Research 102:30,125-30,145.
Karl TR (1998) Annexe A Regional trends and variations of temperature and precipitation in The regional impacts of climate change, Watson RT, Zinyowera MC, Moss RH (Eds) Cambridge University Pressm Cambridge
Karl TR, Diaz HF, Kukla G, (1988) Urbanization: its detection and effect in the United States climate record J. Climate 1:1099-1123
Karl TR, Jones PD, (1989) Urban bias in area-averaged surface air temperature trends. Bull Amer Met Soc 70:265-70,
Karl TR, Jones PD (1990) Comments on "Urban bias in area-averaged surface air-temperature trends " Reply to GM Cohen. Bull Amer Met Soc 71: 571-574
Karl TR, et al, (1993) "Asymetric trends of daily maximumand minimum temperature",. Bull Amer Met Soc 74:1007,
Kerr, R.A. (1992) "Unmasking a shifty climate system", Science, V
G. Kukla, J. Gavin, and T.R. Karl, 1986, Urban
Warming, Journal of Applied Meteorology, Volume 25, Issue 9
Landsberg, Helmut E. (1981) The Urban Climate. Academic Press.
Miller TW (2000) http://wwwghcc.msfc.nasa.gov/temperature
Michaels, P.J. (1992) Sound and Fury: the science and politics of global warming. The Cato Institute.
NASA. 2000, "Contrary Thermometers" http://spacescience.com/headlines/y2000/ast21jul_1m.htm?list
NASA 2000 "Culprits of Climate Change"
National Research Council (2000), Reconciling Observations of Global Temperature Change. Commission on Geosciences, Environment and Resources, National Academies USA. http://books.nap.edu/books/0309068916/html
Parker DE, Legg TP, Folland CK, 1992, A New Central England temperature Series, 1772-1991. Int. J. Climatology, 12, 317-342.
Parker DE, Jones PD, Bevan A, Folland CK. (1994). Interdecadal changes of surface temperature since the 19th century. J Geophysical Research 99:14373-14399
Parker DE, Folland CK, Jackson M, 1995 Marine surface temperature observed variations and data requirement. Climatic Change 31:559-600
Peterson TC, Vose RS (1997) An overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network temperature database. Bull Amer Met Society 78: 2837-2849
Peterson TC, Gallo KP, Lawrimore J, Owen TW, Huang A, McKittrick DA (1999) Global rural temperature trends Geophys Res Letters 26:329-332
Quayle RG, Peterson TC, Basist AN, Godfrey CS (1999) Geophys Research letters 26: 333-335
Reynolds. RW, TM Smith 1994. Improved global sea surface temperature analyses J Climate 7 929-948
Salinger MJ, 1982 On the suggestion of post-1950 warming over New Zealand . New Zealand J. Science 25:77-86
Santamouris, M, Mihalakakou G, Papanikolaou N, Asimakopoulou DN (1999) Geophysical research letters 26: 337-340
Smith, TM, RW Reynolds, RE Livesey, DC Stokes 1996 Reconstruction of historical sea surface temperature using empirical orthogonal functions J Climate 9 1403-1420
Soon W, Baliunas S, Posmentier, ES, Okeke P, 2000 Variations of solar coronal hole area and terrestrial lower tropospheric air temperature from 1979 to mid-1998: astronomical forcings of change in earth’s climate? New Astronomy to be published.
M. Stendel, Christy, J.R., Bengtsson, L. 2000. Assessing levels of uncertainty in recent temperature time series. Climate Dynamics 16: 587-601.
Vinnikov KYa, Grossman PYa, Lugima KM , 1990 Empirical data on contemporary global climate changes (temperature and precipitation). J Climate 3:662-677.
Wood, F.B. 1988, "Comment: On the need for Validation of the
Jones et al. Temperature Trends with respect to Urban Warming",
Climatic Change 12, 297-312.
Updated 21, February, 2001
© 2000 / 2001 Warwick Hughes,
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