Contact Information  and References

The writer is Warwick Hughes, a free lance earth scientist who has published several papers on climate science through the 1990's.   See list below.
Dr Vincent Gray has written bio notes about me at;
If you have questions, comments, suggestions etc I can be contacted  at sanur2007 at sign
The site  has always been self funded and  I am of course open to ideas for improvements.

Refereed Published Papers:

1992         Robert C. Balling, Jr., Sherwood B. Idso, and Warwick S. Hughes. "Long-Term    and   Recent Anomalous  Temperature Changes in Australia."        Geophysical Research Letters, Vol. 19, No. 23, pp. 2317-2320.

1995          Robert C. Balling, Jr. and Warwick S. Hughes. "Comments on "Detecting Climate Change Concurrent with Deforestation in the Amazon Basin: Which Way Has It Gone ?"     Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, Vol. 76, No. 4, 9. 559.

1995          Warwick S. Hughes.   Comment on D.E. Parker, "Effects of Changing Exposure of   Thermometers at Land Stations." International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 15,  pp. 231-234.
Four page paper scanned here

1996           Warwick S. Hughes and Robert C. Balling, Jr. "Urban Influences on South African Temperature Trends." International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 16, No. 8, pp. 935-940. Online at

1997           Warwick S. Hughes.   Comment on, "Historical Thermometer Exposures in Australia." by N. Nichols et al.    International Journal of Climatology, Vol. 17,  pp. 197-199.

References Quoted on these pages.

Balling, RC, Idso SB (1989) Historical temperature trends in the United States and the effect of urban population    growth. Journal of Geophysical Research 94:3359-3363

Balling RC, Vose RS, Weber GR (1998) Analysis of long-term European temperature records: 1751-1995. Climate   Research 10: 193-200

Bate, R. (1998), Editor, "Global Warming The Continuing Debate", European Science and Environment Forum.

Christy JR, Goodridge JD (1995) Precision global temperatures from satellites and urban warming effects of  non-satellite data. Atmospheric Environment 16: 1957-1961

 Chow Shu Djen (1992). The urban climate of Shanghai Atmospheric Environment 26B(1):9-15.

 Daly J.(2000a) What the stations say.

Duchon CE (1986) Temperature Trends at San Juan. Puerto Rico. Bull. Amer. Metor. Soc. 67:1370-1377

Easterling DR, Horton B, Jones PD, Peterson TC, Karl TR, Parker DE, Salinger MJ, Razuvayev V, Plummer N,  Jamason P, Folland CK (1997) Maximum and minimum temperature trends for the globe. Science 277:364-367.

Emsley, J, (1996) Editor, " The Global Warming Debate",  European Science and Environment Forum.

Folland, Parker and Kates, 1984  Worldwide marine temperature fluctuations 1856-1981, Letter to Nature, Vol 310, 23 Aug 1984, page 670, 673.

P. Frich et al 1996.  North Atlantic climatological dataset (NACD version 1)  Final report. Danish Meteorological Institute, Scientific Report 96-1, 47 pp + app.  Available on web site.

Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS), (2000) Surface Temperature: Station Data.

Goodridge JD (1992) Urban bias influences on long-term California air temperature trends . Atmospheric  Environment 26B (1): 1-7.

Grove, Jean. 1988 "The Little Ice Age".   Methuen.

Goodridge, JD (1996) Comments on "Regional Simulations of Greenhouse Warming including Natural Variability" . Bull, Amer. Meteorological Society 77:1588-1599

Hansen, JR, Lebedeff S, (1987) Global trends of measured surface temperature. J. Geophysical Research   92:13,345-13,372

Hansen, J, R Ruedy , M Sato, R. Reynolds (1996) Global surface air temperature in 1995: Return to pre=Pinatubo   level Geophys Research Letters 23, 1665-1668

Hansen J, Ruedy R, Glasoe, J, Sato, MKI, (1999) GISS analysis of surface temperature change J. Geophys. Res.  104: 30997-31022.

Hansen JR (2000).

Hessell, JWD (1980) Apparent trends of mean temperature in New Zealand since 1930. New Zealand J. Science 23:  1-9.

Houghton JT, Jenkins JG, Ephraums JJ (1990) Climate change, the IPCC scientific assessment. Cambridge   University Press. Cambridge

Houghton JT., Meira Filho LG, Callander BA, Harris N, A. Kattenberg A, Maskell K , (1996), Climate Change 1995 :   The science of climate change, Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Howard, Luke (1818)  The Climate of London.  Discovery of the UHI

Hughes WS, Balling RC (1996) Urban influences on South African temperature trends. Int J Climatology 16:935-940   (also available at )

Jones PD , Raper SCB, Cherry BSG, Goodess CM,  Wigley TML, Santer B, Kelly PM,  Bradley RS, Diaz HF, . (1985)  TR022  A Grid Point Surface Air Temperature Data Set for the Northern Hemisphere. Office of Energy  Research ,Carbon Dioxide Research  Division, US Department of Energy. Under Contract No. DE-ACO2-79EV10098

Jones PD , Raper SCB, Bradley RS, Diaz HF, Kelly PM, Wigley TML. (1986) Northern Hemisphere surface air   temperature variations 1851-1984. J. Clim Appl Met. 25:161-179

Jones, P.D., Raper, S.C.B. and Wigley, T.M.L., (1986b),  Southern Hemisphere Surface Air Temperature Variations 1851-1984.    Journal of Clim Applied Meteorology, 25, p. 1213-1230.

Jones PD , Raper SCB, Cherry BSG, Goodess CM,  Wigley TML,  (1986c)  TR027  A Grid Point Surface Air Temperature Data Set for the Southern Hemisphere. Office of Energy  Research ,Carbon Dioxide Research  Division, US Department of Energy. Under Contract No. DE-ACO2-79EV10098

Jones PD, Kelly PM, Goodess GB, Karl TR (1989) The effect of urban warming on the Northern Hemisphere   temperature average. J Clim 2: 285-290

Jones PD, Groisman PYa, Coughlan M, Plummer N, Wangl WC, Karl TR (1990) Assessment of urbanization effects   in time series of surface air temperatures over land. Nature 347:169-172

Jones PD , Raper SCB, Cherry BSG, Goodess CM,  Wigley TML, Santer B, Kelly PM,  Bradley RS, Diaz HF, . (1991) An Updated Global Grid Point Surface Air Temperature Anomaly Data Set: 1851-1990. Carbon Dioxide Research Program, Environmental Sciences Division, US Department of Energy.

Jones PD, (1994) Hemispheric surface air temperature variations: a reanalysis and an update to 1993.  J Clim 7:1794-1802

Jones PD, Osborn TJ, Wigley TML, Kelly PM, Santer BD, (1997) Comparisons between the microwave sounding  unit temperature record and the surface temperature record from 1979 to 1996: Real differences or potential  discontinuities? J. Geophys Research 102:30,125-30,145.

Karl TR (1998) Annexe A Regional trends and variations of temperature and precipitation in The regional impacts  of climate change, Watson RT, Zinyowera MC, Moss RH (Eds) Cambridge University Pressm Cambridge

Karl TR, Diaz HF, Kukla G, (1988) Urbanization: its detection and effect in the United States climate record J. Climate 1:1099-1123

Karl TR, Jones PD, (1989) Urban bias in area-averaged surface air temperature trends. Bull Amer Met Soc   70:265-70,

Karl TR, Jones PD (1990) Comments on "Urban bias in area-averaged surface air-temperature trends " Reply to GM   Cohen. Bull Amer Met Soc 71: 571-574

Karl TR,  et al, (1993) "Asymetric trends of daily maximumand minimum temperature",. Bull Amer Met Soc   74:1007,

Kerr, R.A. (1992) "Unmasking a shifty climate system", Science, V 255: 1508.

G. Kukla, J. Gavin, and T.R. Karl, 1986,  Urban Warming,   Journal of Applied Meteorology, Volume 25, Issue 9 (September 1986)

Landsberg, Helmut E. (1981)  The Urban Climate.  Academic Press.

Miller TW (2000)

Michaels, P.J. (1992) Sound and Fury: the science and politics of global warming.  The Cato Institute.

NASA.  2000,  "Contrary Thermometers"

NASA   2000  "Culprits of  Climate Change"

National Research Council (2000), Reconciling Observations of Global Temperature Change. Commission on   Geosciences, Environment and Resources, National Academies USA.

Parker DE, Legg TP,  Folland CK, 1992,    A New Central England temperature Series, 1772-1991.  Int. J. Climatology,  12, 317-342.

Parker DE, Jones PD, Bevan A, Folland CK. (1994). Interdecadal changes of surface temperature since the 19th   century. J Geophysical Research 99:14373-14399

Parker DE, Folland CK, Jackson M, 1995 Marine surface temperature observed variations and data requirement.   Climatic Change 31:559-600

Peterson TC, Vose RS (1997) An overview of the Global Historical Climatology Network temperature database. Bull    Amer Met Society 78: 2837-2849

Peterson TC, Gallo KP, Lawrimore J, Owen TW, Huang A, McKittrick DA (1999) Global rural temperature trends     Geophys Res Letters 26:329-332

Quayle RG, Peterson TC, Basist AN, Godfrey CS (1999) Geophys Research letters 26: 333-335

Reynolds. RW, TM Smith 1994. Improved global sea surface temperature analyses J Climate 7 929-948

 Salinger MJ,  1982 On the suggestion of post-1950 warming over New Zealand . New Zealand J. Science 25:77-86

 Santamouris, M, Mihalakakou G, Papanikolaou N, Asimakopoulou DN (1999) Geophysical research letters 26:   337-340

 Smith, TM, RW Reynolds, RE Livesey, DC Stokes 1996 Reconstruction of historical sea surface temperature using  empirical orthogonal functions J Climate 9 1403-1420

Soon W, Baliunas S, Posmentier, ES, Okeke P, 2000 Variations of solar coronal hole area and terrestrial lower  tropospheric air temperature from 1979 to mid-1998: astronomical forcings of change in earth’s climate? New   Astronomy to be published.

M. Stendel, Christy, J.R., Bengtsson, L. 2000.  Assessing levels of uncertainty in recent temperature time series.   Climate Dynamics 16: 587-601.

Vinnikov KYa, Grossman PYa, Lugima KM , 1990 Empirical data on contemporary global climate changes   (temperature and precipitation). J Climate 3:662-677.

Wood, F.B. 1988, "Comment:  On the need for Validation of the Jones et al. Temperature Trends with respect to Urban Warming", Climatic Change 12,  297-312.

Updated 21, February, 2001

© 2000  / 2001   Warwick Hughes, 

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