| The data from shallow ice
cores, such as those from Siple, Antarctica[5, 6], are widely used as a
proof of man-made increase of CO2 content in the global atmosphere,
notably by IPCC. These data show a clear inverse correlation between
the decreasing CO2 concentrations, and the load-pressure increasing
with depth (Figure 1 A). The problem with Siple data (and with
other shallow cores) is that the CO2 concentration found in
pre-industrial ice from a depth of 68 meters (i.e. above the depth of
clathrate formation) was “too high”. This ice was deposited in 1890 AD,
and the CO2 concentration was 328 ppmv, not about 290 ppmv, as needed
by man-made warming hypothesis. The CO2 atmospheric concentration of
about 328 ppmv was measured at Mauna Loa, Hawaii as later as in
1973, i.e. 83 years after the ice was deposited at Siple.
| An ad hoc assumption, not
supported by any factual evidence[3, 9], solved the problem: the
average age of air was arbitrary decreed to be exactly 83 years younger
than the ice in which it was trapped. The “corrected” ice data were
then smoothly aligned with the Mauna Loa record (Figure 1 B),
and reproduced in countless publications as a famous “Siple curve”.
Only thirteen years later, in 1993, glaciologists attempted to
prove experimentally the “age assumption”, but they failed.
The notion of low pre-industrial CO2 atmospheric level, based on such poor knowledge, became a widely accepted Holy Grail of climate warming models. The modelers ignored the evidence from direct measurements of CO2 in atmospheric air indicating that in 19th century its average concentration was 335 ppmv (Figure 2). In Figure 2 encircled values show a biased selection of data used to demonstrate that in 19th century atmosphere the CO2 level was 292 ppmv. A study of stomatal frequency in fossil leaves from Holocene lake deposits in Denmark, showing that 9400 years ago CO2 atmospheric level was 333 ppmv, and 9600 years ago 348 ppmv, falsify the concept of stabilized and low CO2 air concentration until the advent of industrial revolution .
Improper manipulation of data, and arbitrary rejection of readings that do not fit the pre-conceived idea on man-made global warming is common in many glaciological studies of greenhouse gases. In peer reviewed publications I exposed this misuse of science [3, 9]. Unfortunately, such misuse is not limited to individual publications, but also appears in documents of national and international organizations. For example IPCC not only based its reports on a falsified “Siple curve”, but also in its 2001 report used as a flagship the “hockey curve” of temperature, showing that there was no Medieval Warming, and no Little Ice Age, and that the 20th century was unusually warm. The curve was credulously accepted after Mann et al. paper published in NATURE magazine. In a crushing criticism, two independent groups of scientists from disciplines other than climatology [16, 17] (i.e. not supported from the annual pool of many billion “climatic” dollars), convincingly blamed the Mann et al. paper for the improper manipulation and arbitrary rejections of data. The question arises, how such methodically poor paper, contradicting hundreds of excellent studies that demonstrated existence of global range Medieval Warming and Little Ice Age, could pass peer review for NATURE? And how could it pass the reviewing process at the IPCC? The apparent scientific weaknesses of IPCC and its lack of impartiality, was diagnosed and criticized in the early 1990s in NATURE editorials [18, 19]. The disease, seems to be persistent.
The basis of most of the IPCC conclusions on anthropogenic causes and on projections of climatic change is the assumption of low level of CO2 in the pre-industrial atmosphere. This assumption, based on glaciological studies, is false. Therefore IPCC projections should not be used for national and global economic planning. The climatically inefficient and economically disastrous Kyoto Protocol, based on IPCC projections, was correctly defined by President George W. Bush as “fatally flawed”. This criticism was recently followed by the President of Russia Vladimir V. Putin. I hope that their rational views might save the world from enormous damage that could be induced by implementing recommendations based on distorted science.
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